A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding IoT Connectivity Protocols

IoT connectivity protocols are critical for IoT devices to communicate with each other and the cloud. But not all protocols are created equal.

Wi-Fi is a popular IoT protocol that connects proximal devices to the Internet by broadcasting a signal. It can be deployed in various topologies, including line, ring, star, and mesh.


IoT protocols are crucial for enabling the devices of the Internet of Things to communicate with each other. These protocols are the invisible language that allows hardware to share data in a structured and understandable way for both ends of the connection.

Depending on your use case, different IoT wireless protocols may be more appropriate than others. For example, an industrial IoT network might require direct device-to-device communication, while a home smart home system would use a mesh network to send data to the central hub. Some IoT wireless protocols, such as energy management or healthcare, have specialized applications.

Wi-Fi is an IoT protocol that offers many benefits, including the ability to transfer large amounts of data over reasonable distances. However, it consumes much power and is not recommended for battery-powered or low-power IoT devices.

Experts often break down the IoT architecture into three, four or five layers based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. Each layer represents a particular function and includes IoT connectivity protocols enabling it to work. For example, the OSI network layer enables devices to connect with routers and the Internet. The application layer enables device-to-device, gateway-to-device and device-to-gateway communication. The transport layer defines how data is packaged and transmitted. The best IoT protocols for this level offer the highest quality transmission without too much power.

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LoRaWAN is a network protocol using sub-GHz frequencies to connect IoT devices wirelessly. It operates similarly to cellular networks with centralized base stations or gateways that may be located kilometers apart. These gateways, which are often professionally managed by service providers like Sigfox or open source, serve as the conduit between IoT modules and network servers.

LoRa WAN allows IoT sensors to communicate with each other, a gateway, and the network server in a manner that optimizes battery life, range, and data transmission speed. As a result, it’s ideally suited for IoT use cases such as agriculture, asset tracking, and smart buildings.

The LoRaWAN protocol supports bidirectional communication, network scalability, and device localization. It also features a reliable data transfer mechanism supporting time synchronization and multiple channels, which can help minimize interference. Additionally, it supports the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol, which allows IoT systems to communicate asynchronously by storing messages in queues.

As 2G and 3G technologies retire, LoRaWAN will likely become the leading LPWAN option for IoT. To make the most of its benefits, it’s important to understand how this network architecture works and how to set up an IoT system that supports it.


The MQTT protocol (MQ Telemetry Transport) is a lightweight messaging protocol for resource-constrained devices. Its publish-subscribe communication pattern is ideal for IoT applications that require low latency and minimal bandwidth use. MQTT is also battery-efficient and can transmit data accurately over a radio connection, which is essential for IoT devices operating in remote environments with intermittent connectivity.

In MQTT, devices communicate with each other by publishing and subscribing to topics that a message broker handles. The broker can handle both asymmetric and asymmetric communication, with clients either publishing or subscribing to all issues or specifying hierarchy levels to only receive the needed data.

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MQTT allows IoT devices to use the same messaging broker to send and receive messages, which reduces coding complexity and the amount of code required to implement an IoT project. It also allows for a more secure and reliable connection since the data is only transmitted if the client acknowledges receipt.

MQTT was developed as a low-overhead protocol to get around bandwidth and CPU restrictions. It was intended to operate in an embedded setting where it could offer a dependable, efficient way of communication. MQTT is a suitable option for wireless networks that face different levels of delay owing to sporadic bandwidth limits or unstable connections since it connects devices with a tiny code footprint. The protocol is used in various sectors, including telecommunications, energy, and the automobile industry.

MQTT also supports asynchronous communication, which means the device can continue sending data even if it doesn’t receive a response from the receiver. This makes the device more efficient because it doesn’t have to wait for the server to send back a confirmation. This is especially important when the sensor is in an environment where the network connection might not be reliable, such as a wireless temperature sensor installed on a PoE Ethernet Switch that operates in a cold climate.